Lithiasis is a disease that depends on multiple factors. These factors may be related to endocrine-metabolic disorders, internal anatomical abnormalities, previous surgeries, genetics…
The main symptom of lithiasis is nephritic colic, which is characterized by intense pain in the kidney fixed or radiating to the lower abdomen and/or genital area, together with general malaise.
This generates important limitations for the patient, multiple admissions to the emergency room and alterations in their quality of life and to develop their work and personal activity. Other associated symptoms are blood in the urine, repeated urinary tract infections.
The treatment of lithiasis is based on two fundamental pillars:
Through dietary recommendations and the use of different drugs after knowing the causes of the disease.
Shock wave lithotripsy
Indicated in lithiasis of small size and little or medium hardness.
Laparoscopic / open surgery:
Only indicated in cases of very complex lithiasis and with associated anatomical anomalies.
Percutaneous renal surgery
Indicated in lithiasis larger than 20 mm or complex urinary tract. It consists of fragmenting the lithiasis with laser but entering through the skin directly into the kidney. It is a more invasive technique than ureteroscopy, but usually effective and with rapid recovery of the patient.
Rigid or flexible ureteroscopy
Indicated in renal and ureteral lithiasis of up to 20 mm of any hardness. It consists of direct fragmentation of the lithiasis by laser entering from the bladder. It has the advantage of being a minimally invasive treatment, with effective results and fast recovery.
Endoscopic treatment of lithiasis by ureteroscopy, nephroscopy or combined treatment of both usually offers excellent results, rapid recovery and a return to work and personal activity in a very short time.
Rigid or flexible ureteroscopy is performed on an outpatient basis, without the need for hospitalization. Percutaneous surgery requires at least 24 hours of hospitalization. In case of laparoscopic or open surgery, hospitalization may be 48-72 hours.
It depends on the case and its complexity. If the lithiasis is resolved in a short time, the urinary tract looks good, there is no suspicion of infection or bleeding, the catheter may not be left at the end of the procedure.
Normally, after 2-3 weeks, the patient is checked in consultation with an imaging test (abdominal X-ray and/or CT scan) to verify the absence of lithiasis and to be able to continue with the medical follow-up.
Normally yes, a fragment that is not pulverized is extracted in order to analyze it to determine the composition of the lithiasis, which is related to the possible metabolic alteration responsible for its formation.